levels of evidence/ebm scoring

What is EBM scoring?

The CVIR Instructions for Authors, located at the Springer CVIR site, includes a section titled, “Scientific Style.” When you expand this section, you’ll see details regarding abbreviations, drug names and digits, and a basic description of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) scoring.

CVIR manuscript submission website utilises the EBM Scoring system to assist authors and reviewers in clarifying the levels of evidence used in their submission.

CVIR requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which EBM rankings are applicable. This should be stated at the bottom of the abstract. CVIR also requires that reviewers designate their evaluation of the level of evidence for the manuscripts that they review.

For example, author should include a related phrase at the bottom of the abstract:
“Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study.”
EBM ratings are based on a scale of 1-5 as follows:

Level 1 (a-c): evidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomized controlled trial.
• Level 2 (a-c): evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
• Level 3 (a-b): evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group.
• Level 4: evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention, such as case studies. Dramatic results in uncontrolled trials might also be regarded as this type of evidence.
• Level 5: opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees.
• No level of evidence for: review articles, basic science, laboratory investigations and experimental study articles


For a detailed table regarding these ratings, please visit Oxford CEBM Levels of Evidence.
If you have any questions or concerns about EBM scoring, please contact the CVIR Editorial Office at info@cvironline.org.